TNO is the largest fully independent Research, Development and Consultancy organization in the Netherlands with a staff of about 3,200 and a total annual turnover of about 520 million Euros. Its primary tasks include support and assistance of trade and industry including SME’s, governments and others in technological innovation and in solving problems by rendering services and transferring knowledge and expertise. TNO provides contract research and specialist consultancy, as well as grant licenses for patents and specialist software. Also, TNO tests and certifies products and services, and issues an independent evaluation of quality. Geothermal research is performed within the department of Applied Geosciences as part of the Theme Energy. Focus of the research lies on the development of cost-effective geothermal technologies. Additional activities include economic analyses, risk assessments and regulatory advices on implementing geothermal energy.